Authors talk about “Culture of Transgressions” on radio program

ETCO President Roberto Abdenur and three of the five authors (Renato Janine Ribeiro, Aristides Junqueira and Marcílio Marques Moreira) from the book “Culture of Transgressions in Brazil - Scenarios of Tomorrow”, recently launched by ETCO in partnership with iFHC, they granted individual interviews for the program “Beginning the Day”, of the radio Cultura FM of São Paulo.

Commanded by journalist Alexandre Machado, the program mixes classical music with news of politics, economics, culture, sustainability and behavior. It airs from Monday to Friday from 8am.

Check out the interviews below:

Interview Renato Janine Ribeiro (23 / 08 / 2011)

Interview Aristides Junqueira (24 / 08 / 2011)

Roberto Abdenur Interview (26 / 08 / 2011)

Interview Marcílio Marques Moreira (29 / 08 / 2011)

Brake on Hunger

The State of S. Paulo - 04/09/2011

By Renato Janine Ribeiro

Is capitalism ethical? This is a very difficult question to answer. Basically, there are two main lines today. One emphasizes the dynamics of a system, or a style, that liberates the production of traditional moorings and thus reveals an unparalleled ability to create and perhaps even distribute wealth. But the price of this liberation is nothing or unethical: the capitalist is driven by an “animal instinct”, he promotes “creative destruction”. At best, it is ethically neutral, what we call "amoral". It is often even predatory, what we call “immoral”. For him alone, he would not respect labor rights - so much so that, in recent decades, several of them have been reduced - nor would he have reverence for nature and the environment.


However, this does not necessarily represent a condemnation of capitalism. It just shows that he is excellent at what he proposes: producing. However, it needs external controls. These can be exercised by the State, by society, by public opinion. From this point of view, what can introduce ethics into the economy are people, while not entrepreneurs. That is, the entrepreneur himself, by ethical values ​​that are not his as an entrepreneur, but as a person, as a moral subject, can guide his productive activity in a better direction. If not, it will be society. When more and more people buy taking into account not only the price, but what companies do good and bad, this is what happens. An important example in Brazil were the campaigns - driven by people, including Abrinq entrepreneurs - against child labor. Zara, accused for days of commercializing products in which slave labor is used, suffers in its image for this reason.

This is a first way of looking at capitalism, say, "wild". But there is another perception, or conception, of capitalism. It comes when organizations like Etco strive to defend a clean environment of corruption for business to flourish. Here the problem is, as seen in the series on the culture of transgressions that came out by Saraiva publisher (whose third volume I participated in), how to avoid the primacy of transgression, which makes good rules - good according to the law and ethics - be violated in the name of an easy advantage that, however, demoralizes society, amoralizes the economy and immoralizes politics. This line of thought would be closer to Max Weber's Calvinists, who felt "Protestant ethics" expressing themselves in the "spirit of capitalism". Entrepreneurial people, who dart, do everything for society to prosper: the Weberian businessman of the 16th or 17th century has nothing to do with the cartoon banker, smoking a cigar, indolent, smart, in league with the powerful, corrupters. This entrepreneur from the beginnings of modernity may not be sympathetic - in the Americas, he would be a slave master, in Holland, he would not recognize the rights of his employees -, but he worked, a lot. In a way, when it comes to capitalism that requires intense ethics, that's what you think about.

But nowadays, an upgrade appears. Increasingly, in place of Protestant and moralistic ethics, an ethical concern appears that was born from the idea of ​​the environment and now develops for sustainability. The Calvinist entrepreneur who makes the company his reason for life no longer has the ideal model. On the contrary, more and more life is the raison d'être of everything we do, including (but not only, not even primarily) the company. It all starts with discontent with pollution. The economy that has developed since the Industrial Revolution has a very high cost for life - human, animal, vegetable. London spends a hundred years covered by fog, a fog that is due to pollution from factories. People don't see each other. The city is invisible and the citizens are blind to their surroundings. However, after the Second World War, a concern for nature grows around the world. Green movements fight against the poor quality of air, water, in order to preserve forests. At this point, “green” means the natural or assimilated environment. However, over the years, green causes attach a cast of other values. It is not just the defense of the world that is not contaminated by man. It is the defense of man, against what wears him down or devalues ​​him.

A reorientation of science is also proposed. Take the philosopher who is the first major reference for all concern for the environment, Rousseau. He is a nature lover. He begins his Daydreams of the Lonely Walker, narrating a walk around Paris, where he looks at the plants, identifies them, is ecstatic. But it is also someone who makes his literary debut with a writing, awarded by the Dijon Academy, claiming that "the arts and sciences" - that is, what we call technology and science - have done more harm than good. They denatured the world. They degenerated the man. Rousseau sees nothing modern, be it economics, politics or science, the ability to reverse the process by which "man was born good and society corrupts him".

But what we have noticed in science in recent decades is a strong commitment to reducing and even suppressing the damage caused by development. Let us remember that not long ago science and technology were, to a large extent, influenced by military orders. That has changed. Keep in mind that much research is conducted in the name of destructive causes, even today. Many suspect that GM crops, or are certain that individual transport vehicles, cause more harm than good. Cars are good in the short term for a few, but they suck for the future of humanity as a whole. Even so, however, in cases such as the tobacco industry, scientists cut their umbilical link with it, as seen in the film The Informant. And they are renowned scientists who form the core of the International Commission on Research on Climate Change, which is perhaps the most prestigious body in the struggle to change the mindset that governs the production of negative costs for society and nature.

With a greener science and technology, a green that came out of plants and colors everything that is life and even culture, that is, it starts to propose a better quality of life for humans and their partners on the planet, with the defense of biodiversity and what we can call cultural-diversity, why not a fresh cut economy? Is it possible for a company's project to have sustainability at its core, that is, the proposal that no human intervention worsen what has been received? This is a high requirement. For me to eat, I have to kill animals or even vegetables. (The funniest moment in the movie Notting Hill, for me, was when a girl called herself a Lapsarian vegetarian. Lapse means falling. What she said was that she only ate fruits and vegetables that had already fallen from the plant that generated them. She wouldn't eat one. apple plucked from the apple tree, because it would be killing a living being. It is difficult, of course, to live with such a radical ethics.) , one day (this is the dream!), until the conditions of what was received improve. Here I expand the idea that we receive inputs "from nature" to that we receive inputs that are also human: work, health, and the good disposition of each other. Action is sustainable that not only clears the damage caused, but also promotes gains. Suppose a company decides to provide its employees with healthy food - every three hours, as is recommended today, instead of a few large meals. It can improve their health. It will thus have returned more than it consumed. It is clear that there are so many inputs that the calculation cannot isolate one from the others. But it is an example.

Because, at bottom, our question is: what will make a company or an entrepreneur act ethically, be ethical? Everything I have said does not give a definitive answer. When a company makes a point of not exploiting child labor or preserving nature, is this initiative "of the company" or of the individuals who, among other things, own it? The difference is important. Every company seeks profit. But what makes you set limits to your greed? Is it part of the business project itself, or will it be external elements, including the personal values ​​of the owners? To get out of morality and into moralism, it is said that there was a time when a wine with the word “devil” in its name was not distributed here because the importers were fervent Christians. It was their value, not the company's. And can a company have values? Is a company different from the human beings that own it, who make it? Difficult issues. What does seem certain, however, is that a company can have a sustainable solidity in its own business project and that this will be more viable if it has social and environmental commitments and, moreover, is at the cutting edge, at the cutting edge , of science. The rest remains to be clarified - or done.


ETCO launches new book this Thursday

ETCO and the Fernando Henrique Cardoso Institute hold on August 18, at the Museum of Modern Art in São Paulo, the launch cocktail for the book Cultura das Transgressões no Brasil - Cenários do Amanhã.

With texts by Aristides Junqueira, former Attorney General; Gilmar Mendes, Minister of the Supreme Federal Court, Paul Singer, economist and national secretary of Solidarity Economy; Renato Janine Ribeiro, professor of Ethics and Political Philosophy at USP and Marcílio Marques Moreira, president of the ETCO Advisory Council, the book completes the Culture of Transgressions series and is the result of the Seminar promoted in April by ETCO and Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso (iFHC) .

The authors will be present to sign the work.

Launch of the book Cultura das Transgressões

Date: 18 August 2011
Opening hours: from 19:30 pm
Location: MAM - Museum of Modern Art
Address: Ibirapuera Park - Gate 3

Culture of Transgressions in Brazil: Views of the Present

In Brazil we live a kind of paradox: at the same time that the material conditions of life improve, we have the sensation of experiencing a kind of “moral crisis”, which manifests itself from the relationships between people to the relationships between who governs and who is governed.

Was there really a "moral crisis" that we should be concerned with? Or is it just a distorted perception, a product of our difficulty in identifying and understanding the formation of new values, replacing the values ​​of a traditional society?

It is around these issues that the essays gathered in this book, the second in the Culture of Transgressions in Brazil series, revolve around that iFHC and ETCO carry out in partnership.

The presentation was made by André Franco Montoro Filho and Fernando Henrique Cardoso.


About the authors:

Marcílio Marques Moreira he is chairman of the Advisory Board. Bachelor of Law from the State University of Rio de Janeiro and Master of Political Science from Georgetown University. He is an honorary member of the University Council of PUC and effective member of the Board of Directors of the Catholic University of Petrópolis and FGV, among other academic and cultural institutions in Brazil and the USA.

Fabio Wanderley Reis holds a PhD in Political Science from Harvard University, is an emeritus professor at the Faculty of Philosophy and Human Sciences at UFMG, a member of the CNPq Deliberative Council, former president of the National Association of Graduate Studies and Research in Social Sciences (Anpocs) and Great- Cross of the National Order of Scientific Merit.

Caio Tulio Costa he is a journalist, professor of Journalistic Ethics at Faculdade Cásper Líbero, in São Paulo, doctor of Communication Sciences at USP and consultant in new media.

Yves de la Taille he is a professor at the Institute of Psychology - USP. Chair of Developmental Psychology and Genetic Psychology - Institute of Psychology - USP.

Içami Tiba has been a psychiatrist at the Faculty of Medicine of the University of São Paulo (FMUSP) for 41 years; psychodramatist and family consultant. Counselor of the National Institute for Training and Education for Work “Via de Acesso”.



Visions of the Present

Marcílio Marques Moreira, Fábio Wanderley Reis, Caio Túlio Costa, Yves de La Taille and Içami Tiba

Editora Saraiva
1st edition 2009
168 pages
ISBN: 978-85-02-09024-8

iFHC and ETCO promote seminar on culture of transgressions

Event - Culture of Transgressions

Photo (from left): Janine Ribeiro, Henrique Cardoso, Paul Singer and Marques Moreira

A packed auditorium marked the holding, on April 18, of the Seminar The Culture of Transgressions in Brazil: Scenarios of Tomorrow, promoted by ETCO and Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso (iFHC) with lectures by Aristides Junqueira, former attorney general of the Republic; Paul Singer, economist and national secretary of Solidarity Economy; and Renato Janine Ribeiro, professor of Ethics and Political Philosophy at USP.

For Marcílio Marques Moreira "the partnership with iFHC has been valuable to sustain the discussion on the issue of transgression, since the innovations of society have to obey permanent guidelines, with regard to ethical principles".

During the meeting, Fernando Henrique Cardoso said he was “relatively optimistic about the future” and spoke about the risks of small concessions. "As long as it accepts the assumptions that small theft is not theft or that stealing a little is not stealing, society will not make the necessary move that will lead to the effective criminal and social sanction of transgression," warned the former president.

Among the 80 guests present, iFHC included names such as Celso Lafer, José Pastore, José Gregori, Leôncio Martins Rodrigues, as well as Hoche Pulcherio and ETCO representatives.

This seminar continued the series Culture of Transgressions, which has had two editions: Lições da História, in 2007, and Visões do Presente, in 2009. As in previous years, this edition will be transformed into a book that ETCO will publish in the second half of this year.


Culture of Transgressions in Brazil - Lessons from History

Second edition of the book edited by ETCO in partnership with iFHC investigates the origin of practices that escape the sense of responsibility. The work was prepared based on a seminar, held in August 2007 at iFHC, where the central issue was the culture of transgressions in Brazil.

Few reflections have deserved the theme of transgressions in Brazil, despite the fact that the practice of behavior contrary to laws, norms and codes of conduct is so ingrained in the way of being of the Brazilian people, in the individual and in the social, as to be an element of building national memory.


The urgency - always present - of the need to bring to light the debate on such a complex and diffuse subject makes reading the book Culture of Transgressions in Brazil - Lessons of History, recently launched by ETCO - Brazilian Institute of Ethics Concurrential, essential. in partnership with Instituto Fernando Henrique Cardoso, iFHC. Under the coordination of ex-minister Marcílio Marques Moreira and ex-president Fernando Henrique himself, and with a presentation by the economist and ETCO president, André Franco Montoro Filho, the book brings a good overview of the various facets that shape transgressions, with the concern to try to trace throughout the history of the country the origin and evolution of practices that escape the sense of responsibilities and obligations in the most diverse segments, both in the public and private spheres.


Because they are multifaceted, transgressions allow different interpretations and approaches, and it is precisely in the “richness” of the ways of feeling and facing the theme, so vital to the widening of the discussion, the great contribution of the ETCO initiative together with the iFHC. The result of a seminar dedicated to the theme, the book brings together texts by four experts, experts in the country's social, political and cultural issues, from the perspective of History, Law, Anthropology and Political Science.


Joaquim Falcão, director of the FGV-Rio School of Law, introduces in his text the notion of “collectivized transgressions”, in which the repeated and customary practice of individual transgressions ends up exceeding the limit of the unit to gain the form of the collective, understood by him as a result of the repetition of the same act by millions of people or entities. It uses property law to discuss in a practical way about three situations characteristic of the growing illegalization of everyday life: the right to housing, the related issue of definitive deed and copyright. Falcão believes that they are examples of the monopoly legal structure established in the country. He defends the diversification of legislation in the form of a pluralization of legal acts in accordance with the most complex and differentiated aspects that guide social relations today.


Historian José Murilo de Carvalho, on the other hand, delves into the concept of legal monopoly and highlights in his text the role that laws and coroners have always played in the country's political evolution. For him, the set of laws, which benefits the operators of the police and legal system, has the effect of elitizing justice and inciting transgression. It is as if what José Murilo calls “legiferous fury” worked as a kind of feedback factor for transgression, creating a vicious circle that would only benefit the law enforcers themselves or those who can pay the costs of a lawsuit.


To break with this state of affairs, José Murilo believes that some attitudes, in the way of thinking and acting, would need to disappear from society, such as the moralistic stance characteristic of “udenism”, fatalism and pragmatic cynicism, in addition to the current view of that the law is somewhat disposable, instead of being understood as an end, necessary for the survival of the system of representative democracy.



In the economy, the country sustains a sophisticated and advanced system, but it is still subordinated to a heavy and backward institutional framework



Anthropologist Roberto DaMatta's text highlights the “representative” aspect of the perpetrator's surroundings as, for him, the variable “who was” would encompass the nature of the crime committed in a complication of the complex of egalitarian and hierarchical values. "Our problem would not be the law, but the care in its application, which forces us to consider who committed the crime," he says. Here too, the importance of a deeper change in social values ​​that leads to the politicization of the issue is raised, because, DaMatta believes, without being aware of the difference between “transgression” and “transgressions” conceived and lived in specific societies, endowed with a regime of guilt, shame, respect and honor that is equally particular, the trend is to continue introducing legal mechanisms that, "even if they are able to surround the entire block, let the thief escape".


Political scientist Bolívar Lamounier tries to establish a relationship between transgression and the market economy. His intriguing article questions the possibility of the middle class playing the role of an agent for revising values ​​and providing political support to boost the market economy and to stop the escalation of transgression. Would, he asks, be the Brazilian middle class a solution or a problem in the context of the issue of transgressions? The answer is not trivial. Bolívar is, however, convinced that the persistent increase in transgression in Brazil is an inevitable correlate of the modernization process, the price paid for a dynamic, modern and democratic society. The other side of the issue, he points out, is the accumulated delay in the institutional field, in the construction of values ​​and standards of sociability comparable to those of more developed countries. Reading the book Culture of Transgressions in Brazil confirms the perception that we live in a deeply dichotomous reality: the country operates in a sophisticated and advanced system in the economic sector, but is still subordinated to a heavy and backward institutional system. Between one and the other, a society proliferates that benefits from the progress of the economy while trying to survive jumps, jumping from branch to branch.


* Maria Clara RM do Prado is a journalist and director of Cin - Comunicação Inteligente, a columnist for the newspaper Valor Econômico and author of the book A Real História do Real, published by Record.